The lists below are from the UK National Curriculum for spelling and grammar.

Most native English speakers didn't learn grammar at school. It's great they are doing this now. For an explanation on the terms, or for more information, click on the links below to go to Cambridge Dictionary or my website (the videos are made for adults so use them to help you understand spelling so you can explain it).

Statutory requirements for age 6-7 (UK Year 2, Aus Year 1, USA 1st grade)
Grammar: noun, noun phrase, statement, question, exclamation, command, compound, suffix, adjective, adverb, verb, apostrophe, comma

Tenses: present tense, past tense, progressive tense - present progressive past progressive (also called continuous tense) I'm going, he was going, She's coming soon, She was driving when it started to rain.
Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and co-ordination (using or, and, but)

Key spellings and key words:
-dge/-ge (badge, edge, bridge, dodge, fudge... age, huge, change, charge, bulge, village)
-er / -est for comparative and superlative adjectives
kn-/gn- words
wr- words
-le/-al/-el/ -il endings
1:1:1 doubling up rule
y to i rule with suffixes
y to ies or s plural rule (flies, tries, replies, copies, babies, carries)
Adding suffixes: -ment., -ness, -less, -ly
Apostrophe for contractions, and possession
-tion ending
Homophones

Statutory requirements on the curriculum for age 8-9 (UK Year 3/4, Aus Year2/3, USA 2nd/3rd grade)

Grammar terms: preposition, conjunction word family, prefix, clause, subordinate clause, direct speech, consonant, vowel, inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’)

Spelling
1:1:1 doubling up rule for longer words (begin - beginner)
-ou- pattern (young, double, country)
Prefixes: dis, mis, in, un, il, re, sub, inter, super, anti, auto...
-ation suffix
-ly, ically suffixes
-sure, -ture endings
-sion, -ion, -cian endings
-ous endings
ch for "k" in chemist, scheme, echo
ch for "sh" in chef chalet
Words ending in -gue and -que
-ei- words
Possessive apostrophe
Homophones

Statutory for age 9-11 (UK Year 5-6, Aus Year 4-5, USA 4th/5th grade)

Grammar terms: modal verb, relative pronoun relative clause, parenthesis, bracket, dash, cohesion, ambiguity, subject, object, active, passive, synonym, antonym, ellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi-colon, bullet points

Spelling
-cious/-tious endings
-cial/-tial endings
-ant/-ance
-ent/-ence
-able/-ably
-ible/ -ibly
Doubling up the 'r' in words ending in -fer (referring, transferred)
Hyphens
-ie- / -ei- after c words
-ough
Silent letters
Homophones and easily confused words

Spelling book for 10-11-year-olds
For more info, click here