In this video we're looking at the doubling up 1:1:1: spelling rule as in:

put - putting, big-bigger, stop-stopped, fat- fatten, run - running, thin - thinner, sit - sitting, get - getting, stop-stopping, hot-hotter, swim - swimming...

Do you know why we double up the end consonant? 

Before I explain let's look at  some spelling language we need for this rule:

Do you know what vowels, consonants, suffixes , syllables are?

vowels- a.e.i.o.u (y is sometimes classed as a vowel)

consonants - b,c,d,f,g,k,l,m,n,p,r,s,t,w,y,z

suffixes are little words added to the end of a word: -ing, -s, -ment, -ed...

syllables:  are bits of a word broken down with a vowel in them, and different bits can be stressed. 
qua/li/fi/ca/tion  begin,  swimming

Let's look at those words again:

put - putting, big-bigger, stop-stopped, fat- fatten, run - running, thin - thinner, sit - sitting, get - getting, stop-stopping, hot-hotter, swim - swimming...

Do you know why we double up the last consonant?

Say these words to yourself - put/sit/run/swim/thin/get

Notice they all have 1 syllable sounds

Notice they all have 1 consonant at the end of the word.

Notice they all have 1 vowel next to the consonant:

With the 1:1:1 rule, we usually double the end consonant when we add the following vowel suffixes (-ing,-ed,-er, -est, -en, -ish, -ery, -y)

put - putting, big-bigger, stop-stopped, fat- fatten, run - running, thin - thinner, sit - sitting, get - getting, stop-stopping, hot-hotter, swim - swimming... 

So words of one syllable ending in one vowel + one consonant, double the last letter before a vowel suffix.

We don't double up the final consonant when it's w, x or y


But that's not all:

*** We also double up some words that are more than one syllable when the last syllable is stressed.

prefer ("preFER") - preferring/preferred (but not preference)
begin ("beGIN") - beginning, beginner
regret ("reGRET") - regrettable, regretting
occur ("ocCUR") - occurred, occurring, occurrence
forbid - forbidden
commit - committed
refer - referred (but not reference stressed)

Remember there are always exceptions to English spelling rules!!!

Focus can be spelled with either a single or a double s focused/focussed, focusing/focussing

A lot of spellers don't know this rule but just see what looks right- "we always say that looks strange". But it's always good to know why spelling is the way it is and the rules.

spelling tests

Which of these are right? Use your visual memory for what looks right or the rule.

1. shoper or shopper?
2. foxes or foxxes?
3. beginner or beginer?
4. fatest or fattest?
5. sleeping or sleepping?
6.  forgettable or forgetable?
7. quicker or quickker?
8. planning or planing?
9. budgetting or budgeting?
10. quizzed or quized?

business meeting




Answers

1. shop -  shopper?
2. fox - foxes  (add -es to x rule)
3. begin - beginner 
4. fat - fattest
5. sleeping - sleeping (2 vowels before final consonant so 'p' not doubled)
6. forget - forgettable  
7. quick - quicker  (2 consonants at end so 'k' not doubled.)
8. plan - planning 
9. budget - budgeting(stress is on the bud so 't' not doubled)
10. quiz - quizzed 

 

How did you do?

 Remember spelling only improves if you practise ( you practice - American)

Click here to go to the 1:1:1 doubling up rule spelling test